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Pros And Cons Of Database Management System

Pros And Cons Of Database Management System

  • 28th Jul, 2020
  • 18:22 PM

DBMS Assignment Question

Given a set of system requirements, determine the pros and cons of using a database management system.


DBMS Assignment Answer

Please find below the pros and cons of using a database management system



  1. Data redundancy and inconsistency – Redundancy is the concept of repetition of data i.e. each data may have more than a single copy. The file system cannot control redundancy of data as each user defines and maintains the needed files for a specific application to run. There may be a possibility that two users are maintaining same files data for different applications. Hence changes made by one user does not reflect in files used by second users, which leads to inconsistency of data. Whereas DBMS controls redundancy by maintaining a single repository of data that is defined once and is accessed by many users. As there is no or less redundancy, data remains consistent.

  2. Data sharing – File system does not allow sharing of data or sharing is too complex. Whereas in DBMS, data can be shared easily due to centralized system.

  3. Data concurrency – Concurrent access to data means more than one user is accessing the same data at the same time. Anomalies occur when changes made by one user gets lost because of changes made by other user . File system does not provide any procedure to stop anomalies. Whereas DBMS provides a locking system to stop anomalies to occur.

  4. Data searching – For every search operation performed on file system, a different application program has to be written. While DBMS provides inbuilt searching operations. User only have to write a small query to retrieve data from database.

  5. Data integrity – There may be cases when some constraints need to be applied on the data before inserting it in database. The file system does not provide any procedure to check these constraints automatically. Whereas DBMS maintains data integrity by enforcing user defined constraints on data by itself.



  1. Increased Cost: These are different types of costs:

    1. Cost of Hardware and Software – This is the first disadvantage of database management system. This is because for DBMS, it is mandatory to have a high speed processor and also a large memory size because now a days there is a large amount of data in every field which needs to be store safely and with a security. The requirement of these large amount of space and a high speed processor needs an expensive hardware and also an expensive software too. That is there is a requirement of sophisticated hardware and software which means that we need to upgrade the hardware which is used for file-based system. Hardware and Software, both requires maintenance which costs very high. All the operating, Training (all levels including programming, application development, and database administration), licensing, and regulation compliance costs very high.

    2. Cost of Staff Training –Educated staff (database administrator, application programmers, data entry operations) who maintains the database management system also requires good amount. We need the database system designers to be hired along with application programmers. Alternatively the services of some software house need to be taken. So there is a lot of money which needs to be spent for developing software.

    3. Cost of Data Conversion – We need to convert our data into database management system, there is a requirement of lot of money as it adds on to the cost of the database management system. This is because, for this conversion we need to hire database system designers whom we have to pay a lot of money and also services of some software house will be required. All this shows that a high initial investment for hardware, software and trained staff is required by DBMS. So, altogether Database Management System results in a costlier system.

  2. Complexity: As we all know that now a days all companies are using the database management system as it fulfils lots of requirement and also solves the problem. But a problem arises, that is all these functionality has made database management system an extremely complex software.

    • For the proper requirement of DBMS it is very important to have a good knowledge of it by the developers, DBA, designers and also the end users.

    • This is because if any one of them do not acquire a proper and complete skills than this may lead to data loss or database failure. 

    • These failure may lead to bad design decisions due to which there may be a serious and bad consequences for the organization. So this complex system needs to be understood by everyone using it.

    • As it cannot be managed very easily. All this shows that database management system is not a child’s game as it cannot be managed very easily. It requires a lot of management.

    • A good staff is needed to manage this database at the times when it becomes very complicated to decide where to pick data from and where to save it.

  3. Currency Maintenance - This is very necessary to keep your system current because efficiency which is one of the biggest factor and need to be overlook must be maximised. That is we need to maximise the efficiency of the database system to keep our system current. For this, frequent updation must be performed on all the components as new threats comes daily. DBMS should be updated according to the current scenario. Also security measures must be needed. Due to advancement in database technology, training cost tends to be significant.

  4. Performance: Traditional file system is written for small organizations and for some specific applications due to which performance is generally very good. But for the small scale firms, DBMS does not give a good performance as its speed is very slow. As a result some applications will not run as fast as they could. Hence it is not good to use DBMS for the small firms. Because performance is a factor which is overlooked by everyone. If performance is good than everyone (developers, designers, end users) will use it easily and it will be user friendly too as speed of the system totally depends on the performance and performance needs to be good.

  5. Frequency Upgrade/Replacement Cycles: Now a days in this world we need to stay up-to-date about the latest technologies, developments arriving in the market. Frequent upgrade of the products is done by the DBMS vendors in order to add new functionality to the systems. New upgrade versions of the software often come bundled. Sometimes these updates also need hardware upgrades. Sometimes these changes and updating are so fast that the users don’t feel it difficult to work with that system because it is not easy to learn new commands and understanding them again and again when the new upgrades are done. All these upgrades also costs money in order to train users, designers etc to use the new features.


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